Rheumatic Diseases

RHEUMATISM IN CHILDHOOD Aetiology.—Acute rheumatism is probably the reaction of the body to the presence of a haemolytic streptococcus of no particular strain, conveyed by droplet infection though being of but limited infectivity. A familial incidence is recognized. So far from an attack conferring immunity, children are liable to progressively severe recurrences. There is a close association between rheumatism and sore throats in childhood. It is largely an environmental disease, the two main factors being […]

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Schools and Infectious Diseases

Spread of Infection in Schools.—One of the chief duties of those doctors first appointed by education authorities was to take steps to arrest the spread of infections in schools. As a factor in the transmission of infectious diseases school attendance is not so important to-day as in the past when there was more crowding in rooms which, because of the small windows and inefficient heating, were poorly ventilated. While the influence is still great in […]

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Environmental Hygiene: Housing

Housing Sites Soil.-Natural soil is primarily derived from the subsoil by decomposition of the mineral ingredients, and with the addition of animal and vegetable matter. T h e subsoil which starts at that depth where organic matter is no longer present forms the less weathered stratum immediately under the soil. The factors which influence the healthiness of a soil are : the slope and permeability, which affect drainage ; freedom from excessive vegetation ; and […]

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Environmental Hygiene: The Water

THE Royal Sanitary Commission, 1869, summarized the national sanitary minimum necessary for civilized social life as : A supply of wholesome and sufficient water for drinking and washing. The prevention of pollution of water. The provision of sewerage and the utilization of sewage. The regulation of streets, highways, and new buildings. Healthiness of dwellings. The removal of nuisances and of refuse, and the consumption of smoke. The inspection of food. The suppression of the causes […]

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The Medical Profession and Auxiliaries

The Doctor In the Middle Ages medicine, like all learning, was closely linked with the Church, though surgery developed separately. The physician influenced by Renais- sance learning and by Greek literature progressed. In 1518 by the efforts of Linacre the Royal College of Physicians of London was established. The Act of 1522 provided that no person except a graduate of Oxford or Cambridge should practise medicine unless he had been approved by the College, though […]

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The Growth of the Health Services Provided by Local Authorities

Environmental Services.—The closing of the monasteries by Henry VIII resulted at the time of Queen Elizabeth in there being no organization to provide for the relief of the poor, so the parish, which was the most active survival of the early English system, was adopted as the unit of administra- tion under the Poor Relief Act of 1603. Each vestry appointed an overseer and poor rates were instituted, the activities of the vestry and the […]

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